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دانلود تحقیق آماده در قالب word با عنوان Entrepreneurship در ۱۴ ص


Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a vast majority of new businesses fail. Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization that is being started. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo projects (even involving the entrepreneur only part-time) to major undertakings creating many job opportunities. Many "high-profile" entrepreneurial ventures seek venture capital or angel funding in order to raise capital to build the business. Many kinds of organizations now exist to support would-be entrepreneurs, including specialized government agencies, business incubators, science parks, and some NGOs. History of Entrepreneurship The understanding of entrepreneurship owes much to the work of economist Joseph Schumpeter and the [[Austrian economists such as Ludwig von Mises and von Hayek. In Schumpeter (1950), an entrepreneur is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation. Entrepreneurship forces "creative destruction" across markets and industries, simultaneously creating new products and business models. In this way, creative destruction is largely responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth. Despite Schumpeters early 20th-century contributions, the traditional microeconomic theory of economics has had little room for entrepreneurs in its theoretical frameworks (instead assuming that resources would find each other through a price system). For Frank H. Knight (1967) and Peter Drucker (1970) entrepreneurship is about taking risk. The behavior of the entrepreneur reflects a kind of person willing to put his or her career and financial security on the line and take risks in the name of an idea, spending much time as well as capital on an uncertain venture. Knight classified three types of uncertainty. First, RISK, which is measurable statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red colour ball from a jar containing 5 red balls and 5 white balls). Second, AMBIGUITY, which is hard to measure statistically (such as the probablity of drawing a red ball from a jar containing 5 red balls but with an unknown number of white balls). Third, TRUE UNCERTAINTY or KNIGHTIAN UNCERTAINY, which is impossible to estimate or predict statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red ball from a jar whose number of red balls is unknown as well as the number of other coloured balls). The acts of entrepreneurship is often associated with true uncertainty, particularly when it involves bringing something really novel to the world, whose market never exists. Before internet exists, nobody knows the market for internet related businesses such as Amazon, Google, YouTube, Yahoo etc. Only after the internet emerged did people begin to see opportunities and market in that technology. However, even if a market already exists, lets say the market for cola drinks (which has been created by Coca Cola), there is no guarantee that a market exists for a particular new player in the cola category. The question is: whether a market exists and if it exists for you. The place of the disharmony-creating and idiosyncratic entrepreneur in traditional economic theory (which describes many efficiency-based ratios assuming uniform outputs) presents theoretic quandaries. William Baumol has added greatly to this area of economic theory and was recently honored for it at the 2006 annual meeting of the American Economic Association.[1] Entrepreneurship is widely regarded as an integral player in the business culture of American life, and particularly as an engine for job creation and economic growth. Robert Sobel published The Entrepreneurs: Explorations Within the American Business Tradition in 1974. The Entrepreneur Entrepreneurs have many of the same character traits as leaders. Similarly to the early great man theories of leadership; however trait-based theories of entrepreneurship are increasingly being called into


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